Nearly every developed country in the world has some sort of credit reporting system. Italy works on a system which is something like a hybrid, it reports some things, but it isn’t a credit score as such. If you default then it’s reported to a database run by the Government, so if you have bank debts, default on loans, credit cards, mortgage payments and so on they are recorded.
Until recently your credit history wasn’t a factor, but now with more and more places reporting data, people do have a credit record as soon as they get some form of credit.
Banks in Italy report your credit limit together with information on how you use the bank, and also if you have a credit card. Unlike other countries though, credit agencies also show if you are rejected for credit.
Access to your credit report is free, you have to fill in a form and send it off to get your report. You can get a copy of your SIC report (The official credit record) from Experian in Italy here https://www.experian.it/content/dam/marketing/emea/italy/it/assets/sic-form.pdf You have to post of fax it with a copy of your ID.
You can access details of your credit history and record together with SIC information through Mister Credit which is what we think of as a Credit Reference Agency, it is not free though but is a good resource, especially if you are planning on getting a loan or mortgage etc. mistercredit.it